ROLE OF IMAGING TECHNOLOGY AND CURRENT STATUS OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19): A CRITICAL REVIEW

Muhammad Shahzeb, Areena Khan, Anees Muhammad

Abstract


Lately, there was an outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, a city of province Hubei, China. The infectious and transferrable virus originated in bats, seafood and animals. COVID-19 belongs to Coronviradae family. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) also belong to this family and their outbreak occurred in China and Saudi Arabia back in 2003 and 2012. The number of deaths due to COVID-19 is much greater than that of SARS and MERS. The clinical symptoms of infected individuals from virus are almost the same but diagnostically they are different from one another. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) laboratory technique is a standard test for evaluation and confirmation of COVID-19 disease. In early stages, imaging modalities can be used for screening purposes. X-Ray is used to identify the gross changes within the chest region while Computed Tomography Scanning (CT Scan) chest is used for detailed modification which occurs due to coronavirus. CT scan evaluates the different characteristics in the  individuals infected from COVID-19 such as presence of bilateral ground glass opacities, presence of diffuse consolidation, presence of nodules with halo sign, enlarge thoracic lymph nodes, presence of thicken inter-lobar septa, presence of bronchiectasis and pleural effusion. Each lung lobe was assigned different score on the basis of lobe area involvement. A lobe having no involvement is of score 0, minimal involvement lobe score is 1, mild involvement lobe score is 2, moderate involvement lobe score is 3, and severe involvement lobe score is 4. The lobes are assessed for different degree of involvement and then are divided as none (0%), minimal (1% to 25%), mild (26% to 50%), moderate (51% to 75%) and severe 76% to above level. These all techniques are very effective and responsible for the exact location of the area involved and also show the extension of pathology that can only be possible on CT scan. CT scan not only evaluates the disease but it also provides the assessment of the disease severity.

Keywords: Computed Tomography scan; Coronavirus; Real time polymerase chain reaction; SARS; SARS-CoV-2; MERS

 


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