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Objectives: Echocardiographic assessment of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) is widely recommended and determining the spectrum of echocardiography abnormalities in these patients can have positive impact on the outcome. Therefore, in this study, our aim was to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in patients of ESRD on maintenance HD.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study we included consecutive adult patients with ESRD on maintenance HD and transthoracic echocardiography findings were evaluated for structural and functional changes.
Results: A total of 120 patients were included in this study, patients were predominantly male (63.3%), and mean age of study sample was 46.5 ± 13.6 years with mean disease duration of 2.1 ± 1.8 years. Mean ejection fraction was 39.2 ± 9.8% with 70% (84) having moderate to severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Dilated LV size was observed in 52.5% (63) and 15% (18) of the patients had LV hypertrophy. Higher grade (2 or greater) diastolic dysfunction was noted in 20% (24), pericardial effusion (moderate to large) in 5.8% (7), and 25 patients (20.8%) were found to have pulmonary hypertension. Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) was observed in 25% (30); moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in 21.7% (26), and mild aortic regurgitation was observed in one patient only.
Conclusion: Echocardiographic assessment revealed significant functional and structural alterations in patients with ESRD on maintenance HD. A moderate to severe LV dysfunction, MR, and TR along with a significant diastolic dysfunction and LV hypertrophy were some of the common echocardiography findings in these patients.