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Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVDs) is the leading cause of deaths globally. Apart from traditional risks, multiple indigenous factors are implicated to impact disease courses. Lifestyle factors distinct to South Asians may predispose to disease or serve a protective effect. Our study objective was to determine the Relationship of lifestyle and dietary habits of South-east Asian (Pakistani) population with cardiovascular diseases.
Methodology: A case-control study was conducted from April to October 2021 in a two-thousand bedded university teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Out of 400 participants, 189 were cases with a documented cardiovascular event and 211 were controls. Participants >18 years were included whereas pregnant females and patients with congenital heart defects were excluded. A structured questionnaire was designed and implemented, and anthropometrics were recorded. Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis were utilized via SPSSv23. P-value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: From 400 participants, 189 cases and 211 controls were identified. 53.4% of the people consuming open spices had CVDs while 46.6% did not. While only 37% of people using home cooked spices had CVDs with an OR= 0.51(0.3-0.84, 95% CI, p=0.08). Our results showed an inverse or no relationship of high BMI with CVDs. No statistically significant results were observed of diabetes and hypertension with CVDs.
Conclusion: Based on our results, home grounded condiments have a protective effects on CVD than open spices. With reference to CVD, poor lifestyle habits and anthropometric profiles of our controls indicate a need for urgent preventive measures at population level.