Review of Prevalence and Diagnosis Methods of Cryptosporidium Spp
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Worldwide, the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is responsible for significant diarrheal illness in both people and animals. The epidemiological, molecular, and clinical illness load of untreated Cryptosporidium infections in people in Al-Anbar province are all summarized in the current review. The disease is extremely common in both humans and animals, according to reports that have been retrieved about cryptosporidiosis in Iraq. However, the conclusions drawn from these reports are unclear and frequently used conventional techniques for detecting the infective stage of Cryptosporidium, the oocysts, in clinical samples. Numerous screening surveys are point prevalence studies that reported cryptosporidiosis as the cause of diarrhea in newborns and young children; other infections that cause diarrhea were not eliminated. Numerous investigations using a variety of environmental matrices revealed a high incidence of Cryptosporidium oocysts consuming tap water, which enables its spread to people and animals, in various regions of Iraq. There aren't many reports on the molecular characterisation of the various Cryptosporidium species found in Iraq, although both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum have been found in human isolates, with the latter being more common in cattle, sheep, goats, and birds. To accurately determine the epidemiological condition of cryptosporidiosis, a nationwide investigation on sufficient numbers of samples from people of all ages in Al-Anbar province using cutting-edge diagnostic techniques is necessary. To further identify the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting people and animals, particularly during outbreaks, molecular genotyping research must be carried out in Iraq. Consequently, the parasite Cryptosporidium should be detected and monitored regularly.
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